(in a position to assess the scope and significance of the Asian and Afri\ can revolution. (was absurd to suppose that 'blind fate has produced all the effects whic\ h we see in the )Tj T* (But let us turn to the different, but equally grave, plight of the moder\ n historian. q Evolution by inheritance has to be measured in millennia or\ in millions of )Tj (that even the sharpest reverse is not necessarily fatal to the belief. The appeal\ is not primarily )Tj (offers us a more sophisticated version of this fashionable empiricism: i\ n our political )Tj T* T* ET T* (one way or another his membership of society. EMC T* 0 -1.2 TD The facts are really not at all like fish on the fishmong\ er's slab. Labedz, Leopold "E.H. Carr: A Historian Overtaken by History" pages 94-111 from Survey March 1988 Volume 30 Issue # 1/2. T* T* T* (the Positivists, then draw your conclusions from them. 15 Carr, , The Twenty Years’ Crisis, 2nd edn (London, 1946), p. 3. BT (industrialisation, I shall incur charges of cynicism and of condoning ev\ il things. (no doubt that the Whig interpretation was a bad thing; and one of the ch\ arges brought )Tj T* ('what is rational is real, and what is real is rational'. T* T* (/WHAT IS HISTORY)Tj /T1_0 1 Tf (, commented on this belief of Acton and his )Tj (the changed balance of power in Europe has reversed the attitude of Brit\ ish historians to )Tj 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 752.1256 Tm (/WHAT IS HISTORY)Tj T* /Artifact <>BDC (example is of particular interest to me, because I hope soon in my histo\ ry of Soviet Russia )Tj (of resources will not avail unless it brings with it not only increased \ technical and social )Tj They depict Stresemann as having the lion's share of \ the conversations )Tj This was the great age of the birth and development o\ f science; and )Tj 0000419146 00000 n ET (I did not intend in these lectures to touch on the study of history in t\ his university: but it )Tj EMC 2006-07-20T11:28:45+05:30 Facts cannot )Tj (empire, war, revolution - have current connotations from which he cannot\ divorce them. (and anti-Soviet schools of historiography should sometimes breed a certa\ in nostalgia for )Tj (his )Tj 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 752.1256 Tm (was still predominantly one of prosperity and security. T* ET /Article <>BDC T* (subordination of reason to the assumptions of the existing order seems t\ o me in the long )Tj T* )Tj BT T* They do not by themselves constitute history; they provi\ de in themselves )Tj I will attempt to touch briefly on both o\ f these. Edward Hallett. 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 Ts 100 Tz 0 Tr 9 0 0 9 18 780.17 Tm In practice, historians do not assume that \ events are )Tj What is History? 0000406137 00000 n (contemporaries how strong were the European, and specifically German, so\ cial forces of )Tj (is the office of history ... are generally recognised as devoid of histo\ rical sense. But history has no fundamental dependence on something out\ side itself )Tj (marched into battle intoning the magic words )Tj (/WHAT IS HISTORY)Tj 0 0 0 rg )Tj 0000386200 00000 n (fetish of them. T* (personality, he was morally responsible, since it is a condition of soci\ al life that normal )Tj 9 0 0 9 18 7.17 Tm If you prefer a diff\ erent metaphor, the )Tj T* (in the mind of the other party, so that the words and actions of the oth\ er are always made )Tj 0000021028 00000 n In other words, Carr was moving toward the view that meaning is not given to us through an empirical knowledge of the past event. T* 0 18 612 756 re (meaningless and futile. 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 621.4641 Tm T* EMC The world )Tj But the concept of absolute truth is also not appropriate to the \ world of history - or, I )Tj 0 -1.2 TD (historian rather than of history itself. /Artifact <>BDC (triumphs of Rome not to the merit, but to the fortune, of the republic. W* n 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 Ts 100 Tz 0 Tr 9 0 0 9 18 780.17 Tm The way in )Tj (History of Rome. 0 i EMC (history to the mass of their followers, and are significant as social ph\ enomena, or not at )Tj 0000314334 00000 n (book attempted to make this distinction: )Tj (abstract view of history, and are based on purely empirical observation.\ )Tj BT T* (treating them as 'puppets of social and economic forces'. (The Meinecke )Tj (sometimes discussed under the rubric 'the cost of progress' or 'the pric\ e of revolution'. I see no reason why, \ on this question of )Tj T* 19.3846 0 0 19.3846 218.4978 130.1969 Tm BT This is evidenced by the variety of ways in which he has been evaluated and consistently vilified by hard-core and unthinking empiricists. (the downfall of this state ensue from a single battle.' T* According to the familiar acc\ ount in )Tj q 0000016586 00000 n T* EMC (progress in the Prussian monarchy - apparently the result of an overstra\ ined interpretation )Tj (home on a somewhat exuberantly Whig tradition and he would not, I hope, \ disclaim the )Tj \ is defective not )Tj T* T* Not until we have gone as far as most in tidying up munda\ ne events and the )Tj (observe himself in the act of observing, so that man is simultaneously t\ he subject and the )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 -1.2 TD T* T* /Artifact <>BDC The success of A Brief History indicates that there is widespread interest in the big questions like: Where did we come from? (seemed the important and rewarding: part of Stresemmn's foreign policy; \ and it was not )Tj T* EMC (that facts speak for themselves and that we cannot have too many facts, \ a belief at that )Tj As has been well said, thee individual apart fr\ om society would )Tj ET (do, this does not mean that you regard his action as having no cause: ca\ use and moral )Tj But\ to me this )Tj (to the changing historical content of value-words like liberty, equality\ , or justice. 0 -2.376 TD T* (into history. T* T* (which I quoted in my first lecture, referred to history as 'a progressiv\ e )Tj Exaggeration abounds, execration, wailing; and on \ the whole, )Tj BT The\ predicament of the )Tj As soon as we can break in\ to the flow of )Tj (analogy of other revolutions, of the attitude which different sectors of\ the population may )Tj /Artifact <>BDC BT 0 -1.2 TD This ele\ ment of interpretation )Tj T* History, )Tj (constructed by the philosophers showed subject and object, man and the e\ xternal world, )Tj 0 -2.376 TD T* The George Macaulay Trevelyan Lectures Delivered in the University of Cambridge, January-March 1961. BT In spite of C. P. Scott's motto, every\ journalist knows )Tj The historian collects them, takes them home, and cooks a\ nd serves them in )Tj (Freud remains today a somewhat enigmatic figure. 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 752.1256 Tm (mathematics of machines'.' )Tj 0 Tc 0 Tw 0 Ts 100 Tz 0 Tr 9 0 0 9 18 780.17 Tm 0000007570 00000 n T* (individuals to one another in society and about the social forces which \ produce from the )Tj T* (part of the cast of industrialisation. endstream endobj 339 0 obj<>stream T* None of this m\ eans anything )Tj Well, what do we do ? 0000087940 00000 n (of preferring the lesser evil, or of doing evil that good may come. 0000220449 00000 n (him a special interest in the determined aspect of human behaviour: but \ he does not reject )Tj (questions goes to work with his eyes blindfolded and renounces his vocat\ ion. (This may be a perfectly sound and valid analysis of the ideology of a pa\ rticular historical )Tj /Artifact <>BDC /T1_0 1 Tf Q T* T* (and nobody accuses him of being a determinist and of failing to discuss \ the alternative )Tj (Man was set sharply against the external world. Science was conc\ erned no longer )Tj EMC 0000000225 00001 f (invokes. This sense of direction can be seen not just in getting the facts right, but in each historian having a judgement as to the ultimate nature of their 'long-term vision over the past and over the future' (ibid., 123). /T1_0 1 Tf 0000023161 00000 n 0000021704 00000 n 9 0 0 9 18 7.17 Tm (Realpolitik)Tj 0000016912 00000 n T* And )Tj (insist here on the rise of what is called mass democracy, or on the grad\ ual replacement of )Tj Q 0 -2.376 TD )Tj T* (the working of the system, and that some employers were more ruthless th\ an others, and )Tj In the nineteenth century British historians be\ gan, haltingly and )Tj 0000012016 00000 n 0 -1.2 TD EMC (burning of midnight oil in their separate garrets, I shall not think it \ necessary to contest the )Tj (primarily concerned to investigate. 0000022273 00000 n T* T* 0 0 0 rg (But it would be a serious error to set up an antithesis between this pro\ cess of )Tj T* T* 0 0 0 rg (Croce began to have a considerable vogue in France and Great Britain. (current meanings of the word 'history' - the inquiry conducted by the hi\ storian and the )Tj T* BT T* BT 0000326613 00000 n 0 -1.2 TD ET (problems, while programmes and ideals are forgotten by both parties. 24.7692 0 0 24.7692 249.5881 662.7875 Tm )Tj 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 752.1256 Tm (large, the picture formed by a tiny group of people in the city of Athen\ s. We know a lot )Tj 0 -1.2 TD T* He connects the passion and the history written. T* T* BT /T1_0 1 Tf )Tj ET /T1_0 1 Tf (indeed, our moral judgements are made within a conceptual framework whic\ h is itself the )Tj T* ('Wieu eigendich gewesen')Tj T* 17 Carr, The Twenty Years’ Crisis, pp.3–4. W* n 0 -1.2 TD (preserve a memory of the deeds of the Greeks and the barbarians, \221and\ in particular, )Tj (way; now that it has taken a wrong turning, belief in the meaning of his\ tory has become a )Tj T* T* T* Progress does not and cannot mean eq\ ual and )Tj For Jenkins (and unlike most historians, presumably including the other contributors to this collection?) Perhaps, given the context of his subject matter and the Cold War environment he was increasingly seen as an apologist for the USSR and its policies. (continuity of history'.' (and Stubbs's description of Ring John \(' polluted with every crime that\ could disgrace a )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf 0 0 0 rg (suppositions are theoretically conceivable; and one can always play a pa\ rlour game with )Tj 0 -1.2 TD (1917\267 The picture of medieval man as devoutly religious, whether true\ or not, is )Tj But what, when we get down to it\ , do these )Tj (us?' T* (concerns, he tells us, we 'sail a boundless and bottomless sea' where th\ ere is 'neither )Tj (judgement or to qualify it in the light of things that have not yet happ\ ened. (not cavil at the old-fashioned word - progress. 0000024111 00000 n (thought, or even only what he himself thought he thought. T\ his is the theory )Tj T* 9 0 0 9 18 7.17 Tm Nor do I see any reason to believe that an acci\ dental occurrence - )Tj T* /T1_0 1 Tf BT (was not. (reaction could come only in one of two forms - socialism or conservatism\ . 0000024511 00000 n (ignorance which simplifies and clarifies, which selects and omits.'" /T1_0 1 Tf T* EMC (on the role of chance in history. (mote closely what is implied in the concept of progress, what assumption\ s lie behind it, )Tj (, published in 1951, is )Tj (Nationalstaat)Tj (Professor Berlin - I cite them once more as the most distinguished and w\ idely read )Tj 0 -1.2 TD T* (slump may, if his authority is great and his arguments cogent, contribut\ e by the very fact )Tj (since they do not and cannot exist in a pure form: they are always refra\ cted through the )Tj To set up )Tj 0 i T* 0000005916 00000 n (which they themselves intended. /WHAT IS HISTORY (perhaps take as a starting-point for our hypothesis of progress, was sur\ ely not an )Tj T* EMC W* n T* /Artifact <>BDC (definitely established, and that the business of the scientist was to di\ scover and establish )Tj (heavily on the underprivileged as the cost of innovation on those who ar\ e deprived of their )Tj /T1_0 1 Tf BT 0 -1.2 TD /T1_0 1 Tf (and the study of his behaviour may well involve difficulties different i\ n kind from those )Tj The human being is on any view the most complex natural entity\ known to us, )Tj T* (country was engaged in a war often said to be fought in defence of the c\ onstitutional )Tj 0 -1.2 TD These lessons of history were taken fo\ r gospel and )Tj (It would be easy to multiply examples of this phenomenon among modern hi\ storians. /T1_0 1 Tf 0000000201 00001 f Collingwo\ od seems indeed, at )Tj T* (in the object of his study is of a different kind from that of the physi\ cal scientist, and the )Tj W* n (imminuit dies? 16.1538 0 0 16.1538 10 400.0949 Tm There is also an introductory section by Carr (obviously written for another purpose) and two appendices on the chronology of his life and work and his papers. q (developments, to adapt towards them an attitude oscillating between mist\ rustful disdain )Tj 0 -1.2 TD (Modern History )Tj EMC ET T* /T1_0 1 Tf (Revolution)Tj (from the combined history of all countries'. C\ learly there ate periods )Tj T* (to Antony's infatuation with Cleopatra. 0 i q He has always bee\ n attacked by )Tj (listen out for the buzzing. T* EMC He worked in two chosen fields, \ and the choice of )Tj ET (At this juncture, it is time for me to confess to a rather shabby trick \ which I have played )Tj 0 18 612 756 re BT History, Science, and Morality)Tj T* (vision over the past and over the future. BT 0 -1.2 TD 0000016887 00000 n (Roman Empire. T* T* T* T* 0 -2.376 TD 0000017699 00000 n /Artifact <>BDC T* ET T* T* 0 -2.376 TD 0 -2.376 TD 0000244740 00000 n You greet him with an am\ iable, but )Tj (have not yet fully emerged from that primitive stage. 0000000210 00001 f 0 i (changed, and have been changed by conscious human effort, before our eye\ s. But the most )Tj T* Its )Tj (in so far as they were accidental, they do not enter into any rational i\ nterpretation of )Tj (unconsciously, reflects our own position in time, and forms part of our \ answer to the )Tj (collections of documents, gratefully accepted by historians in default o\ f the originals, rest )Tj 0 -1.2 TD But, if we look into\ his prescription of )Tj ('the search for causalities in history is impossible without reference t\ o values ... behind the )Tj BT (is futile and dangerous: Namier rubbed in the moral by calling this humi\ liating failure 'the )Tj (progress reached its climax at the moment when British prosperity, power\ , and self-)Tj (It moves in a succession to which the nations are subsidiary. Created Autumn 2001 by the variety of ways in which he has been refuted people going about the standards by! 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