Therefore, since additional hardening was not required, case colors were the main objective in case hardening the receiver, lever, butt plate, and grip cap. Carburizing and nitriding, the most common methods employed, and the resultant case‐hardened steels are compared. Wood initially dries from the shell (surface), shrinking the shell and putting the core under compression. Case hardening and surface hardening each have their benefits. With the advent of modern metals and the built in strength of these metals there is little need for true color case hardening on a currently produced firearm. Testing revealed the coating was an excellent treatment for Navy submarine fire suppression valves and has since become a prime choice for applications requiring wear resistance in submerged environments in salty water and corrosive environments. It has also been found that the resistance of a carbonitrided surface to softening during tempering is markedly superior to that of a carburized surface. Primary points are the gun must be completely detail stripped and disassembled down to the last screw. FNC improves surface integrity aspects by increasing corrosion and scuffing resistance as well as fatigue properties while inducing little shape distortion during the hardening process. Hayward A. Harvey, (born Jan. 17, 1824, Jamestown, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 28, 1893, Orange, N.J.), versatile American inventor who discovered the modern method of strengthening armour plating.. Harvey began his career as a draftsman in the New York Screw Company, of which his father was president. Overheating can result in cracking after quenching and excessive grain growth in the region just below the hardened zone. This causes the selected areas to heat. While light, strong, and having good thermal conductivity, the galling and impact deformation issues have limited it largely to peripheral, non-structural components such as muzzle devices, small controls, pins, and the like. If the layer is thick, it is removed by lapping after nitriding. Therefore, it is possible to heat a shallow layer of the steel without heating the interior. Carburizing is the best method for low carbon steels. However, heat applied to the surface tends to flow towards the center by conduction, and so time of heating is an important factor in controlling the depth of the hardened zone. For a modern firearm, color case hardening can create a unique, one-of-a-kind gun. In addition to the custom work, ArmorTi is featured on pre-made titanium parts from Krytos Industries (KrytosIndustries.com, 234/303-2727). ( Log Out / CHERRY RED TR-CHER-5 Instant Case Hardening Compound 5 LB 4.8 out of 5 stars 5. Many old guns have faded color case hardening. The combination of a hard surface and a soft interior is greatly valued in modern engineering because it can withstand very high stress and fatigue, a property that is required in such items as gears and anti-friction bearings. Titanium parts are first machined to dimension and then run through the process. Information above various case hardening methods is given in this article. The difference between color case hardening and case hardening is the carbon compound uses. They will provide specific instructions and details to obtain optimum results for your project and then will create an account to log in your order in their computer system. The result is a failure of the coating (typically cracking or delamination) resulting in wear on the titanium, most often leading to galling. Depending on the physicochemical state of the medium that contains the diffusing element, chemical case hardening can be carried out from the gas, liquid, solid, or vapor phase (the first two are carried out the most frequently) in gas, vacuum, or tank furnaces on objects made of steel, cast iron, pure metals, and alloys based on nickel, molybdenum, tungsten, cobalt, niobium, copper, aluminium, and other … While this is durable and provides benefits, Blacknitride+ is impregnated into the metal and is measured by case depth as to how deep inside, like ice on a pond. The lower thermal conductivity of titanium makes it more difficult for the heat to transfer into a titanium part, keeping it cooler longer and cooling faster once it becomes hot. But when it comes to durability, case hardening is one of the best. H&M has customers that ship in 1-5,000 components per month which can dramatically reduce the price for a bulk savings. Easy-to-use compound case hardens plain and low carbon alloy steels. And you can have it in any color you want… as long as it’s black, satin or matte. The University of Akron is a public research university in Akron, Ohio. A modern computerised nitriding furnace Nitriding is a heat treating process that diffuses nitrogen into the surface of a metal to create a case-hardened surface. Modern Case Hardening. After diffusion has taken place for the required amount of time depending upon the case depth desired, the part is removed from the furnace and cooled. Cases that contain both carbon and nitrogen are produced in liquid salt baths (cyaniding) or by use of gas atmosphere (carbonitriding). The heat treatment of gears is reviewed in Chapters 8 through 12. Single-quench hardening. Cyaniding and carbonitriding4. The process can’t be used on springs and will absolutely destroy any aluminum parts. Follow-Up With Either the BLUE HALO™ GEL PATINA , FLAME F/X™ GEL PATINA or the BLUE-BLACK™ GEL PATINA in Random Patterns. Hardest cases, approximately RC 70 are obtained with aluminium alloy steels known as Nitralloys. At this temperature, the maximum amount of carbon that can be dissolved in austenite can be found out from the Acm line of the iron-iron carbide equilibrium diagram. The process dates back to experiments in the 1950s. Work coil of different designs are used to suit different types of heating requirements like external heating, internal heating, etc. The last two methods do not change the chemical composition of the steel and are essentially shallow-hardening methods. These processes are most commonly used on high-carbon, low-alloy steels. The main disadvantages are the possibility of overheating and thus damaging the part and difficulty in producing hardened zones less than 1/16 inch in depth. When this welding occurs, the parts continue to slide against each other but a section breaks out, causing galls. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. It is difficult to quench the part immediately, as the sealed pack has to be opened and the part removed from the pack. In such cases, the case hardening produces a layer of nitrogen or carbon on the surface of the metal. These processes are commonly used on low-carbon, low-alloy steels, however they can also be used on medium and high-carbon steels. Induction hardening depends for its operation on localized heating produced by currents induced in a metal placed in a rapidly changing magnetic field. Using a ArmorTi-treated Krytos titanium slide, a Glock 19 weighs in at 16 ounces. It is a proprietary, patented process that produces a black, extremely hard, abrasion-resistant finish and allows titanium to be used for applications it was not previously suited for due to titanium’s tendency to gall. This crucible was heated to 1,350 °F (730 °C) for up to 6 hours (the longer the heat was applied the thicker the case hardening). Hardening is a heat treatment process carried out to increase the hardness of Steel. Nitriding3. Titanium has a reputation for deforming under impact. Birchwood Casey Perma Color Case Coloring Finishing Kit, White, One Size 3.1 out of 5 stars 10. Where traditional titanium anodizing results is an oxide finish intended to reduce galling, it fails to hold up under extreme friction and other heavy load-related conditions found in firearms and many aerospace and automotive applications. Heat and pressure drive carbon molecules into the top few microns of a piece of iron or steel, producing a very hard and wear resistant “skin” on the piece of the piece being case … Many processes exist to change the properties of steel tools such tempering steel, oil quenching, precipitation hardening, and more. It involves diffusive infiltration of carbon from the surface inwards and subsequent quenching of the layer thus formed. As an added advantage, hardening is accomplished in a nitrogen atmosphere which prevents scaling. Blacknitride+™ and ArmorTi changes that notion. The current chapter presents the investigation methodology of characteristic failures of chemical and process plants’ components, based mainly on case history investigation approach. Not only because they can’t promise to be familiar with every possible firearm but because Blacknitride+ will surface harden everything inside and out. There are certain metals like iron or steel, that have very low hardness. ( Log Out / Most carburizing gases are flammable and controls are needed to keep carburizing gas at 1700oF from contacting air (oxygen). The hydrocarbon may be methane, propane or natural gas. This process is not new and always held potential for firearm parts. Actually carbonitriding is a modification of carburizing process. The process entails diffusion of boron atoms into the lattice of the parent metal and a hard interstitial boron compound is formed at the surface. Commercial carburizing compounds usually consist of hardwood charcoal, coke and about 20 percent of barium carbonate. This leaves a hard, lubricious surface that prevents galling. There are five principal methods of case hardening as under. The reaction of nitrogen with the steel causes the formation of very hard iron and alloy nitrogen compounds. This magnetic field induces high-frequency eddy currents and hysteresis currents in the metal work piece. The temperatures used are generally lower than those used in carburizing, between 1400 and 1600Â°F. James Purdey & Sons Shotguns, Parker Shotguns, L.C. Cases as deep as 0.025 in can be produces by this method. ( Log Out / In 1948, the family grandfather bought an interest in the company and in the late 1980s, the factory expanded its capabilities to provide salt bath nitriding. Color case hardening (sometimes referred to as case-hardening, case color hardening, or surface hardening) is a heat treating process and one of the earliest ways of hardening lower-grade steel. Case hardening is being practiced in western countries for a long times. Skill is required in adjusting and handling manually operated equipment to avoid overheating the work because of high flame temperature. For these reasons, titanium hasn’t been used as extensively in firearms as its benefits would suggest. As shown in the figure given above, when high-frequency alternating current passes through the work coil, a high-frequency magnetic field is set up. Therefore, very quickly, a surface layer of high carbon (about 1.2 percent) is built up. Because of inherent variation in case depth, the method is not used on work requiring a case depth of less than 0.030 in. ArmorTi has been found to have 98% spark mitigation, making it an ideal treatment there. Processing at a temperature of over 1,000°F where ferrous alloys and steel are in a ferritic phase provides advantages over other case hardening processes that occur in the hotter austenitic phase. Food dehydrators—either commercially made or homemade—give a good-quality dried product. Both through hardening and sur-face hardening methods are reviewed. The operation resembles a transformer in which the primary or work coil is composed of several turns of copper wire and the part to be hardened is made the secondary of a high-frequency induction apparatus. Early attempts were difficult to clean and not very environmentally friendly. Titanium is a great material for gun building as it is light and strong but the friction is bad, galling is a big problem, and there are issues with impact damage. The case also contains up to about 0.5 percent nitrogen, therefore, file-hard cases can be obtained on quenching in spite of the relatively low carbon content. As Henry Ford told his management team about the company’s Model T, there are no other color options, however, if color options are necessary, the surface offers exceptional adhesion for those products that have color variations. important method for the manufacture of plastic gears, is covered in Chapter 4. Around 1400 BC, hardening methods began to appear in armouries around the world. Cycle times for liquid cyaniding is much shorter (1 to 4 hours) than gas and pack carburizing processes. Single action revolvers, and shot guns are very popular to color case harden. The equipment can be taken to the job and adjusted to treat only the area which requires hardening. Case hardening is a simple method of hardening steel involving the use of metal that has low carbon content, and combining it with a metal that has a higher carbon content. What is case hardening? Under known and standard operating conditions, with the surface at fixed carbon concentration, the form of carbon gradient may be predicted, with reasonable accuracy, as a function of elapsed time. ART develops metallurgical solutions for many industries, including aerospace, automotive, defense, energy, food, medical, mining, oil/gas, and steel. Where extreme wear characteristics are important, but aesthetics are not, FNC has been a proven choice. Since nitrogen increases the hardenability, carbonitriding the less expensive carbon steels for many applications will provide properties equivalent to those obtained in gas-carburized alloy steels. The part is heated to 871-954 °C (1600-1750 °F) in a bath of sodium cyanide and then is quenched and rinsed, in water or oil, to remove any residual cyanide. Diffusion methods modify the chemical composition of the surface with hard-ening species such as carbon, nitrogen, or boron. Commercial practice is to use a carrier gas, such as obtained from an endothermic generator and enrich it with one of the hydrocarbon gases. It is an ancient technology that goes back to approximately 1400BC. Pack-In Surface-Hardening Compounds for Steel Harden carbon steel parts in batches, creating wear-resistant surfaces. The molten salt bath deposits nitrogen and carbon that actually penetrates into the surface of the steel and is not just a coating. Oven drying works well if you can set your oven to a temperature of 140 to 150°F. One problem is that ferritic nitrocarburizing has often been used for components that aren’t normally visible to the user. The first step is to contact them directly by phone or through their website and ask to speak with their custom shop. Thinner cases of the order of 1/16 inch can be obtained by increasing the speed of heating and quenching. McMillen started Akron Research and Technology (AkronRT.com, 330/745-3075) to address these issues. The gas produced consists of 40 percent nitrogen, 40 percent hydrogen and 20 percent carbon monoxide. Aluminium, chromium and molybdenum are the major nitride-forming alloying elements. Carbonitriding is a case hardening process in which a steel is heated in a gaseous atmosphere of such composition that carbon and nitrogen are absorbed simultaneously. A brief introduction addresses the progressive failure modes, focusing mainly on creep and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in special steel structural members. The slide takes a lot of impact from rails and barrel but this treatment eliminates titanium’s galling issues and protects the core. In this method,... Nitriding. “Blacknitride+ uses our own propriety blend of chemistry to provide better uniformity and corrosion resistance,” said Ben McMillen, H&M’s Vice President. The carburizing time is between 4 to 10 hours. However it is not well suited to the production of thin carburized cases that must be controlled to close tolerances. The ideal case-hardening process from an economical viewpoint is quenching the components directly from the carburizing temperature. After ArmorTi proved its worth there, Krytos started offering titanium pistol slides which had never been successfully accomplished before. A 4-step heat treatment for hardening case-carburized steels has been developed and is here described and compared with conventional hardening. Also protects delicate, highly finished work, and helps eliminate the need for remachining. The case hardening process adds a thin layer of metal alloy to the outer surface of the metal. The cleaners for metal surfaces may be classified as solvent‐based or aqueous. Flame or induction hardening are processes in which the surface of the steel is heated very rapidly to high temperatures (by direct application of an oxy-gas flame, or by induction heating) then cooled rapidly, generally using water; this creates a "case" of martensite on the surface. An endothermic gas atmosphere can be prepared by reaction of relatively rich mixture of air and hydrocarbon gas (usually natural gas) in an externally heated generator in the presence of a nickel catalyst. The parts are then quenched and tempered. “Success for this process takes real effort to obtain our internal high standards,” McMillen explains. This gas in turn reacts with the excess carbon in the charcoal to produce carbon monoxide, CO. The white layer is brittle and tends to chip from the surface if its thickness is more than 0.0005 inch. Having earned his Metallurgical Engineer degree there, McMillen and ART partnered with the school’s Research Foundation. This process is particularly used for parts requiring a very thin hard case, such as screws, small gears, bolts and nuts. Step 2 eliminates ret Therefore, it is necessary that the steel is capable of being hardened. Usually ships within 3 to 5 weeks. FNC is known by a number of proprietary names, such as Tufftride, Tenifer, Melonite, Nu-Tride, and QPQ (Quench Polish Quench). The nitriding cycle is quite long depending upon the desired case depth. The main advantages of flame hardening are adaptability and portability. method 1: using gel patinas. Nitriding is also applied to stainless steels and tool steels for certain applications. The extra carbon is added to the surface of the part only, thereby making the surface of the part harder, but leaving the center of the part tough and malleable. The other advantage of this method is freedom from oxidation and sooting. In cyaniding, the case is higher in nitrogen and lower in carbon. In flame hardening, heat may be applied by an oxyacetylene torch as shown in the figure given below or it may be a part of an elaborate setup which automatically carries out different tasks like heating, quenching and indexing. In flame and induction hardening the steel must be capable of being hardened and therefore, the carbon content must be about 0.30 percent or higher. Laser beam hardening is another variation of flame hardening. Generally, steel for flame hardening have 0.3 to 0.6 percent carbon. While H&M works with big gun companies, they also run a custom shop that can work on individual customers and custom pieces. Carbon monoxide reacts with the low-carbon steel surface to form atomic carbon which diffuses into the steel. This process can minimize wear and tear and increase the strength of the steel parts’ surface. In conjunction with these university tech services, ART has an agreement to use their lab in exchange for royalty fees to further the university’s growth and fund student projects. Afterwards, the parts were removed from the furnace and quenched. Case hardening describes lumber or timber that has been dried too rapidly. Another advantage is the ability to treat components after machining since there is little scaling. All of the carburizing processes (pack, gas, liquid) require quenching from the carburizing temperature or a lower temperature or reheating and quenching. In step 1 of this new method, steel is case carburized and oil quenched; much higher than normal carburizing temperatures can be used. This solves the problem that PVD coating failed to as PVD would instantly fall off due to the substrate not being strong enough to support the coating. The process works best when large volumes are shipped, which makes the process more affordable. Blacknitride+ is a QPQ steel hardening process tested for superior corrosion resistance, lower co-efficient of friction, and increase lubricity. Parts are then tempered to the desired hardness. Liquid carburizing can be differentiated from cyaniding by the case produced. Each work order is a customized process for those components shipped to the factory. Shade McMillen explaining the Blacknitride process from their Glendale, AZ facility. A carbon content of 0.3–0.6 wt% C is needed for this type of hardening. The core … Single quench hardening is a special case hardening process. Describing the various processes of Case Hardening. ... Have proper ventilation and use proper modern safety gear! Diffusion methods may allow effective hardening of the entire surface of a part and are generally used when a large number of parts are to be surface hardened. A STEM-focused institution, it focuses on polymers, advanced materials, and engineering. Finishes have advanced greatly since basic bluing. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Modern heat treatment of metals and alloys encompasses, in addition to heat treatment proper, thermomechanical treatment, chemical-mechanical treatment, and chemical heat treatment. The effectiveness of this process depends on the formation of nitrides in the steel by reaction of nitrogen with certain alloying elements. Ferritic nitrocarburizing (sometimes abbreviated FNC) is a case hardening processes that diffuses nitrogen and carbon into ferrous metals at sub-critical temperatures during a salt bath. This produces a very hard and surface abrasion-resistant element, while at the same time In the zone below this white layer, alloy nitrides only have been precipitated. Because of this, the price per gun drops sharply when done in batches and volume work. Due to its thermal conductivity properties and light weight, it is common for titanium to be used in applications like firearm suppressors and muzzle devices, however sparking can be an issue. The coating took two years to develop and patent and is now used widely with the U.S. Navy and Coast Guard. The people in ancient western civilization has invented this heat-treating process. The origins of Case Hardening. Carburizing2. Place parts in a vented steel container, pack compound around parts, seal container tightly, and heat to 1750° F. Steel has a thermal conductivity about four times higher than that of many titanium alloys. Nitriding is a lower distortion process than carburizing but it can be used for certain type of steels such as chromium-molybdenum alloy steels or Nitralloy-type steels. The first three methods change the chemical composition, carburizing by the addition of carbon, nitriding by the addition of nitrogen and cyaniding/carbonitriding by the addition of both carbon and nitrogen. Color case hardening (sometimes referred to as case-hardening, case color hardening, or surface hardening) is a heat treating process and one of the earliest ways of hardening lower-grade steel. The other method of case coloring is bathing the metal parts in cyanide. $92.82. Someone came by searching for “color case hardening chemical.” “Case colors” are a part of a hardening process. Of interest to gunsmiths, ART’s research led to creating their ArmorTi process. A convection oven works well because it combines low heat with a fan to move the air. This covers all internal areas, even inside screw holes and the like. In this method, selected areas of the surface of a steel are heated into the austenite range and then quenched to form martensite. However, as cyanide salts are poisonous, this method requires careful attention and the parts must be thoroughly washed after heat treatment to prevent rusting. Thermal conductivity is the ability for a material to absorb and transfer heat. The container is heated to the proper temperature for the required amount of time and then cooled slowly. In this method, the material is placed in a bath of molten cyanide so that carbon will diffuse from the bath into the metal and produce a case comparable with one resulting from pack or gas carburizing. H&M BlackNitride+ video demo “Roughly 90% of the industry uses us in one way or another, to include high-end custom guns,” McMillen says. Case Hardening Methods Carburizing. Traditional finishing like bluing still looks great but performance and high-wear environments demand more durability. Color case hardening uses similar techniques to achieve similar results. Compared to this, cyanide cases are seldom to a depth greater than 0.010 in. A phosphate coating is applied over the steel to facilitate absorption of the laser energy. Methods. Chemical hardening methods- Ammonia, vinegar, alcohol(s), acetone, brine Mechanical hardening methods- Hammering “Stabilizing” methods- Beeswax, Stearic acid, “Pitchwax”, Gelatin, Elmer’s ArmorTi uses forced diffusion to harden titanium’s surface that results in a slick, durable, black finish with a Rockwell hardness of over 70 HRC. In this method, low carbon steel, usually 0.20 percent carbon or lower is placed in an atmosphere that contains substantial amount of carbon monoxide. For application where lower hardness is acceptable, medium carbon steels containing chromium and molybdenum (AISI 4100 and 4300 series) are used. Flame hardening is preferred for heavy cases or selective hardening of large machine components. Due to this, the entire pack is cooled slowly and the part is subsequently hardened and tempered. The atmospheres used in carbonitriding generally comprise a mixture of carrier gas, enriching gas and ammonia. Blacknitride+ treats inside the metal so there are no dimensional changes to the fitted parts and no build up in threaded holes or slide-to-frame fit. Since the core is of low carbon content, the carbon atoms trying to reach equilibrium will begin to diffuse inward. Color case hardening occurs when soft steels were packed in a reasonably airtight crucible in a mixture of charred leather, bone charcoal and wood charcoal. H&M Metal Processing (Blacknitride.com, 330/745-3075) was originally founded in 1946 as a full-service heat treat factory. Color Case hardening is getting very popular. The addition of the low-carbon metal creates a material that can be molded easily into desired shapes. for cyaniding and up to 0.030 in. Because it is a surface-hardening treatment, there are no dimension changes or flaking, chipping, peeling, or loss of adhesion under heavy loading after wear. With their focus on titanium, ArmorTi creates a finish that overcomes the material’s weaknesses. Some of the classic shotgun with case harden were. Color case hardening services use bone charcoal to heat the steel to approximately 950 degrees Celsius before quenching the steel. In pack carburizing, the work is surrounded by a carburizing compound in a closed container. In cyaniding, the proportion of nitrogen and carbon in the case produced by a cyanide bath depends on both composition and temperature of the bath, the temperature being the most important. The nitrogen source is usually ammonia (NH3). The rate of diffusion of carbon in austenite, at a given temperature, is dependent upon the diffusion coefficient and the carbon concentration gradient. bill aug 11, 2019 color case hardening, color case-hardening, faq's, latest news!, questions & answers, specialty finishes, tips & tricks, unique finishes 0 comment STEEL F/X® Patinas Specially Developed for Creating a Color Case-Hardened Finish. With a 50,000 square foot facility staffed with 50 employees in Akron, Ohio and an additional 20,000 square foot Glendale, Arizona facility staffed with five employees, H&M maintains its own in-house metallurgical research and development testing laboratory and FFL license. Ferritic nitrocarburizing (sometimes abbreviated FNC) is a case hardening processes that diffuses nitrogen and carbon into ferrous metals at sub-critical temperatures during a salt bath. While any material will either deform or break under sufficient impact, titanium has a lower stiffness than steel, allowing it to see lower impact stresses than steel under the same conditions. The purpose of carburizing is to provide a hard surface on normally unhardenable steels. for carbonitriding. Finishes such as PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) or Cerakote are actually ceramic coatings applied on the surface’s outside rather like a hard candy shell. The hardened zone is generally much deeper than that obtained by carburizing, ranging from 1/8 to 1/4 inch in depth. Depth of the hardness zone may be controlled by an adjustment of the flame intensity, heating time, or speed of travel. Metal surface cleaning is the beginning of any metal treatment. Nitriding time for some steels is shown in the figure given above. Degussa in Germany released their Tufftride/Tenifer process. Open the oven door 2 to 3 inches to allow moisture to escape. This results in the materials beginning to “stick” to each other and eventually completely binding. A nitrided case consists of two distinct zones. Let’s look at the multiple methods used in the ste… Unlike other options, ArmorTi changes the metallurgy of the outer layer of the titanium by diffusing interstitial hardening elements into the surface instead of applying a new material to the outer surface of the titanium. just fyi, the old school method of case hardening steel is to get the piece so hot that a magnet will no longet stick to it and quickly quench it in used motor oil. , valve stems, shafts and piston rods power of the metal nitrogen source is usually ammonia NH3. Drops sharply when done in batches and volume work of 350 to 400Â°F and air cooled content. A vat for the required amount of time and then run through the process hardwood charcoal, coke and 20... Of arrangements, gunsmith can have their titanium guns and parts finished with ArmorTi titanium hasn ’ accommodate... 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